Java Tutorial

Java Math class

The java.lang.Math class contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

Java Math Methods

The java.lang.Math class contains various methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the logarithm, cube root, and trigonometric functions etc. The various java math methods are as follows:

Basic math methods
Method Description
Math.abs() It will return the Absolute value of the given value.
Math.max() It returns the Largest of two values.
Math.min() It is used to return the Smallest of two values.
Math.round() It is used to round of the decimal numbers to the nearest value.
Math.sqrt() It is used to return the square root of a number.
Math.cbrt() It is used to return the cube root of a number.
Math.pow() It returns the value of first argument raised to the power to second argument.
Math.signum() It is used to find the sign of a given value.
Math.ceil() It is used to find the smallest integer value that is greater than or equal to the argument or mathematical integer.
Math.copySign() It is used to find the Absolute value of first argument along with sign specified in second argument.
Math.nextAfter() It is used to return the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument.
Math.nextUp() It returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of positive infinity.
Math.nextDown() It returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of negative infinity.
Math.floor() It is used to find the largest integer value which is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to the mathematical integer of a double value.
Math.floorDiv() It is used to find the largest integer value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
Math.random() It returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.
Math.rint() It returns the double value that is closest to the given argument and equal to mathematical integer.
Math.hypot() It returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow.
Math.ulp() It returns the size of an ulp of the argument.
Math.getExponent() It is used to return the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a value.
Math.IEEEremainder() It is used to calculate the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard and returns value.
Math.addExact() It is used to return the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int or long.
Math.subtractExact() It returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
Math.multiplyExact() It is used to return the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int or long.
Math.incrementExact() It returns the argument incremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int.
Math.decrementExact() It is used to return the argument decremented by one, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int or long.
Math.negateExact() It is used to return the negation of the argument, throwing an exception if the result overflows an int or long.
Math.toIntExact() It returns the value of the long argument, throwing an exception if the value overflows an int.
Logarithmic Math Methods
Method Description
Math.log() It returns the natural logarithm of a double value.
Math.log10() It is used to return the base 10 logarithm of a double value.
Math.log1p() It returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1.
Math.exp() It returns E raised to the power of a double value, where E is Euler's number and it is approximately equal to 2.71828.
Math.expm1() It is used to calculate the power of E and subtract one from it.
Trigonometric Math Methods
Method Description
Math.sin() It is used to return the trigonometric Sine value of a Given double value.
Math.cos() It is used to return the trigonometric Cosine value of a Given double value.
Math.tan() It is used to return the trigonometric Tangent value of a Given double value.
Math.asin() It is used to return the trigonometric Arc Sine value of a Given double value
Math.acos() It is used to return the trigonometric Arc Cosine value of a Given double value.
Math.atan() It is used to return the trigonometric Arc Tangent value of a Given double value.
Hyperbolic Math Methods
Method Description
Math.sinh() It is used to return the trigonometric Hyperbolic Cosine value of a Given double value.
Math.cosh() It is used to return the trigonometric Hyperbolic Sine value of a Given double value.
Math.tanh() It is used to return the trigonometric Hyperbolic Tangent value of a Given double value.
Angular Math Methods
Method Description
Math.toDegrees It is used to convert the specified Radians angle to equivalent angle measured in Degrees.
Math.toRadians It is used to convert the specified Degrees angle to equivalent angle measured in Radians.
Class Declaration

Following is the declaration for java.lang.Math class −

```
public final class Math
extends Object
```

Field

Following are the fields for java.lang.Math class −

• static double E − This is the double value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.

• static double PI − This is the double value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

S.N. Method & Description
1 static double abs(double a)

This method returns the absolute value of a double value.

2 static float abs(float a)

This method returns the absolute value of a float value.

3 static int abs(int a)

This method returns the absolute value of an int value.

4 static long abs(long a)

This method returns the absolute value of a long value.

5 static double acos(double a)

This method returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi.

6 static double asin(double a)

This method returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.

7 static double atan(double a)

This method returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.

8 static double atan2(double y, double x)

This method returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (x, y) to polar coordinates (r, theta).

9 static double cbrt(double a)

This method returns the cube root of a double value.

10 static double ceil(double a)

This method returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

11 static double copySign(double magnitude, double sign)

This method returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument.

12 static float copySign(float magnitude, float sign)

This method returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument.

13 static double cos(double a)

This method returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle.

14 static double cosh(double x)

This method returns the hyperbolic cosine of a double value.

15 static double exp(double a)

This method returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a double value.

16 static double expm1(double x)

This method returns ex -1.

17 static double floor(double a)

This method returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

18 static int getExponent(double d)

This method returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a double.

19 static int getExponent(float f)

This method returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a float.

20 static double hypot(double x, double y)

This method returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow.

21 static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2)

This method computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard.

22 static double log(double a)

This method returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value.

23 static double log10(double a)

This method returns the base 10 logarithm of a double value.

24 static double log1p(double x)

This method returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1.

25 static double max(double a, double b)

This method returns the greater of two double values.

26 static float max(float a, float b)

This method returns the greater of two float values.

27 static int max(int a, int b)

This method returns the greater of two int values.

28 static long max(long a, long b)

This method returns the greater of two long values.

29 static double min(double a, double b)

This method returns the smaller of two double values.

30 static float min(float a, float b)

This method returns the smaller of two float values.

31 static int min(int a, int b)

This method returns the smaller of two int values.

32 static long min(long a, long b)

This method returns the smaller of two long values.

33 static double nextAfter(double start, double direction)

This method returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument.

34 static float nextAfter(float start, double direction)

This method returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument.

35 static double nextUp(double d)

This method returns the floating-point value adjacent to d in the direction of positive infinity.

36 static float nextUp(float f)

This method returns the floating-point value adjacent to f in the direction of positive infinity.

37 static double pow(double a, double b)

This method returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument.

38 static double random()

This method returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0.

39 static double rint(double a)

This method returns the double value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

40 static long round(double a)

This method returns the closest long to the argument.

41 static int round(float a)

This method returns the closest int to the argument.

42 static double scalb(double d, int scaleFactor)

This method returns d × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set.

43 static float scalb(float f, int scaleFactor)

This method return f × 2scaleFactor rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set.

44 static double signum(double d)

This method returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero.

45 static float signum(float f)

This method returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero.

46 static double sin(double a)

This method returns the hyperbolic sine of a double value.

47 static double sinh(double x)

This method Returns the hyperbolic sine of a double value.

48 static double sqrt(double a)

This method returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a double value.

49 static double tan(double a)

This method returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle.r

50 static double tanh(double x)

This method returns the hyperbolic tangent of a double value.

This method converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees.